"The Cause for a Cure for Crohn's Disease"
U.S. GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND RELATED ORGANIZATIONS
USDA:- Agricultural Research Service.
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USDA-ARS pasteurization research of dubious value
In 1996, Dr. Stabel, of the USDA Agricultural Research Service, and a member of the National Johne's Working Group, conducted a laboratory simulation of commercial High Temperature Short Time (HTST) milk pasteurization process. See here for the full text of the USDA-ARS research.
This simulation study is the basis upon which the FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition has decided dairy safety policy for the United States. The USDA ARS researchers found that MAP did not survive their simulation of pasteurization, a result that is in disagreement with almost every other pasteurization study ever conducted, including studies from the USA, England, Northern Ireland and Australia.
To read what other scientists have stated about the USDA-ARS research, see the following articles/letters
On close examination of the methodologies of the USDA ARS research, it is not difficult to understand why this research arrived at results that are in disagreement with every other study. Although the USDA researchers may have attempted to accurately simulate the conditions of commercial HTST pasteurization, what they failed badly to simulate was the conditions which MAP bacteria experience in real world milk taken from real-world cows with Johne's Disease. Among the additional injuries to which the USDA researchers subjected their bacteria were
The scientific methods used in the USDA-ARS study have also been questioned, on the following basis.
The REAL QUESTION!
The most important thing to note about the dubious quality of the USDA-ARS research is that it provides a very convenient argument point which distracts attention away from the real question.
Simulation research is by definition an approximation of reality, and is thus incapable of definitively answering the real question. While the researchers argue endlessly back and forth about the parameters of simulations, the real question goes unaddressed. Arguing over "turbulent vs. laminar flow", "clumped vs. non-clumped", "frozen vs. not frozen", etc, etc, etc, is a convenient distraction from the real question -
The USDA-ARS research only simulated "High-Temperature Short-Time" (HTST) pasteurization. However, not all dairy products are treated with HTST pasteurization. A percentage of milk supplied by local dairies uses the "Low Temperature Holder" (LTH) pasteurization method. The LTH method is most often used to make ice-cream. Powdered milk is freeze-dried or vacuum-dried. One-third of cheese on sale in the United States is made from milk that is not pasteurized at all.
It is PARA's contention that the only research which is capable of answering the real question, is to
This should have been done in 1994, when two of the world's foremost experts on MAP submitted a grant proposal to USDA to test retail dairy products for the presence of viable MAP bacteria! That proposal was, of course, rejected, three times.
This critical research has been undertaken...not by ARS, and not the FDA...but by the Marshfield Clinic in Marshfield, Wisconsin.
Marshfield Clinic Retail Milk Study
The Marshfield Clinic Retail Milk Study is testing retail supermarket milk, taken from the shelves of supermarkets, for the presence of MAP. This study is being conducted by Dr. Jay L. E. Ellingson, Director of Marshfield Laboratories Food Safety Services. In its July/August 2002 newsletter published by the Marshfield Clinic, Dr. Ellingson states: "Mycobacterium paratuberculosis is considered a suspect zoonotic agent because it causes Johne's disease in cattle, and some studies in the UK say it causes Crohn's disease in humans. The question is whether people get Crohn's disease by ingesting food product derived from infected cattle."
This is the first and only
retail supermarket milk testing program for the presence of MAP ever undertaken in the United States.
Results of the study will be published in the summer of 2003. For
more information, visit the page entitled "MAP in food: The case for retail testing."
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Action you can take
Please visit PARA's "How to Help" section to learn how you can get involved in creating awareness about this vital issue.
Contact PARA: http://www.crohns.org/contact.htm
Paratuberculosis Awareness & Research Association, 1999-2003.
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