Human Nod1 confers responsiveness to bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
The immune response to microbial pathogens is initiated by recognition of specific pathogen components by host cells both at the cell surface and in the cytosol. While the response triggered by pathogen products at the surface of immune cells is well characterized, that initiated in the cytosol is poorly understood. Nod1 is a member of a growing family of intracellular proteins with structural homology to apoptosis regulators Apaf-1/Ced-4 and a class of plant disease-resistant gene products. Here we show that bacterial lipopolysaccharides, but not other pathogen components tested, induced TLR4- and MyD88-independent NF-kappaB activation in human embryonic kidney 293T cells expressing trace amounts of Nod1. Nod2, another Nod family member, also conferred responsiveness to bacterial components but with a response pattern different from that observed with Nod1. As it was reported for plant disease-resistant R proteins, the leucine-rich repeats of Nod1 and Nod2 were required for lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-kappaB activation. A lipopolysaccharide binding activity could be specifically coimmunopurified with Nod1 from cytosolic extracts. These observations suggest that Nod1 and Nod2 are mammalian counterparts of plant disease-resistant gene products that may function as cytosolic receptors for pathogen components derived from invading bacteria.
THIS PAPER DISCUSSES THE NOD-2 GENE. THIS GENE LATER WAS IDENTIFIED AS THE CROHN'S DISEASE GENE. THE NOD-2 GENE IS BACTERIAL PATHOGEN RESPONSE GENE. IT ENABLES THE HOSTS (PERSON) BODY TO MOUNT AN IMMUNE RESPONSE TO FIGHT A POTENTAIL INFECTION. THEREFORE, IT IS AN INFECTION SUSCEPTIBILITY GENE. THIS STRONGLY SUGGESTS THAT A MICRO-ORGANISM IS RESPONSIBLE FOR AT LEAST THE INITIATION OF CD SYMPTOMS
Source: http://www.crohns.org/articles/2001_01_2551-4_jbc.htm Contact PARA: http://www.crohns.org/contact.htm
Paratuberculosis Awareness & Research Association